10 December 2014

The 1846 Emigrants

Eleven passengers who arrived in New York City aboard the iron-laden Swedish barque Virginia in August 1846 settled in Sugar Grove after two years working near Buffalo.1 They were joined in August 1848 by two more family members, two more servants from Lönneberga, and another unconnected family of five who had arrived aboard the Thracian. This group of 20 Swedes made their way from Buffalo to Sugar Grove township in northern Warren County, Pennsylvania in October 1848.2 Their settlement became the parent community3 for Swedish immigrants in Jamestown and the surrounding area.

This is the first of three blogs about their story.

Kisa, Gustaf Sundius, Peter Cassel and the 1846 emigrants 

Most of the histories of the settlement of Swedes in Warren and Chautauqua counties emphasize the connection to Hässleby parish – the origin of the name for the Hessel Valley4 Evangelical Lutheran Church. But more than a third of the passengers aboard the Virginia were from Kisa parish (less than 7 percent emigrated from Hässleby).

Emigration from Kisa and the surrounding parishes along the border of Östergötlands, Jönköpings and Kalmar län began in 1845 with Peter Cassel.5 The fifty-four year old Cassel was an established farmer who sold his land and left Kisa with twenty others in May 1845. They sailed aboard the Superb and arrived in New York City in August where they met Rev. O. G. Hedstrom, whose Bethel Ship mission was in its third year of operation. They also met Peter Dahlberg whose knowledge of America changed Cassel's choice of destination from Wisconsin to Iowa.6

In September 1845, along their journey west, Peter Cassel wrote a letter from Cincinnati to C.G. Sundius7 back in Kisa.  In February 1846, Cassel wrote a letter from Iowa that was published in the Linköping newspaper Östgöta Correspondenten in May. During the spring of 1846, thirty-one Swedes, including the families of Måns (Magnus) Jonsson and his younger brother, Germund Jonsson, received their exit permits from the parish priest in Kisa and joined the assemblage of about 75 passengers who sailed on the Virginia plus about 45 passengers who sailed aboard the Augusta to join Cassel in Iowa.

An important factor in the emigration from Kisa8 was the Apothecary Carl Gustaf Sundius (1783-1858). Starting in 1846, the apothecary shop in Kisa also served as an emigration bureau for the area. Its owner, the pharmacist Sundius, arrived in Kisa with his family in 1836 and had become an important friend of Peter Cassel. Both shared political views that argued for social, religious and economic reform in Sweden. Sundius never emigrated to America (he was 7 years older than Cassel), but he assisted in the sale of Cassel’s property in Kisa and helped with later emigration of locals to Cassel’s settlement in Iowa. His 26-year old son, Julius, was part of the group who emigrated aboard the Augusta in 1846.

I have found no documentation that directly connects the emigrants aboard the Virginia with Peter Cassel and/or Carl Gustaf Sundius, but it is reasonable to assert that both Sundius and Cassel were essential to their decision to emigrate. Kisa was the seat of the region (Kinda härad) and was the location for an essential service (pharmacy) which suggests that the emigrants of 1846 knew Carl Gustaf Sundius and Peter Cassel (either personally or by reputation) and based their emigration plans on Peter Cassel’s example. The geographic distribution of the emigrants aboard the Superb (1845), Virginia (1846) and Augusta (1846) demonstrates Peter Cassel's direct or indirect influence on this early mass emigration from Sweden.

Inland Travel of the 1846 Emigrants 

The emigrants aboard the Virginia probably followed Cassel's route to Göteborg.9 The first stage would have been by horse and cart10 from their farms to a point on the Göta Canal (about 40 miles/60 kilometers north of Kisa) such as Berg on Lake Roxen, north of Linköping. The travel was then by canal boat along the Göta Canal to Vättern Lake, across the lake to continue with the canal to Vänern Lake, and then south following the Göta River to Göteborg.  Alternatively, they may have traveled to the Göta Canal and then proceeded east to the Baltic coast and then by steamship to Göteborg.

Göteborg and the ships to America 

In this era, most emigrated from Sweden to America aboard sailing ships carrying semi-processed iron. Göteborg was a city of about 20,000 inhabitants in 1845 and was the principal port for the export of bar iron from Värmland and Västergötland producers (the other principal export port was Gävle near the iron producers north of Stockholm). Most ships sailed to New York City, however some trade also went through Boston.

In 1846, it is likely that the emigrants had to make travel arrangements to America by contracting directly with the captain of the ship. This practice was soon replaced with agents. The departure of ships was irregular, depending on the wind and the arrival of ships for loading.   Cassel and his group helped construct a farm building for the Captain of the Superb while they waited for the ship's departure. The emigrants in 1846 from Östergötland and Småland arranged passage on two ships, the Virginia and the Augusta. The emigrants who would settle in Warren County booked passage aboard Captain E.A. Jansson’s Virginia.

The Virginia11 was a sailing ship rigged as a barque that hauled Swedish bar iron from Göteborg to New York City. Its voyage in 1846 was under contract arranged by C. Edward Habicht, the Swedish consul in New York. The ship was owned by Olof Wijk,12 a very influential businessman and politician in Göteborg, and the ship was captained by a 30 year old Swede, Erik Andreas Jansson. E.A. Jansson was the son of the sea captain, Erik Jansson, who associated with Olof Wijk (Wijk and his wife were godparents at the baptism of E.A. Jansson). Captain E.A. Jansson is noteworthy for the respect shown him in accounts by emigrants.

The Passengers of the Virginia

The parishes most represented aboard the Virginia were Kisa (26), Horn (8), Södra Vi (7), Västra Eneby (6), Hässleby (5), Gammalkil (5), and Lönneberga (5). This is a partial list because not all passengers have been identified or documented, but the concentration of emigrants from Kisa is evident. The parishes adjacent to Kisa are Tiderseum, Ulrika, Västra Eneby, Horn, Malexander and Södra Vi (Kalmar); and, if you add these parishes with Kisa, they represented two-thirds of the passenger onboard the Virginia.

The parish of origin for the emigrants from 1846 and 1848 who settled in Warren and Chautauqua County.  The families who
arrived on the Morgan Dix and New York settled in the area in the 1850s.  Note: both maps are at the same scale.

The next blog will continue the story of the emigrants aboard the Virginia from Göteborg to New York and onward.


  1. These eleven immigrants were part of the larger group who were waylaid in the Buffalo area from 1846 to 1848.  Hamburg is indicated as the place where Germund and Carin Johnson worked, however, the group may have been more than 60 people, so it is likely that these Swedes were dispersed throughout Erie County’s South Towns.

  2. Some histories note that Germund and Carin Johnson had moved to Sugar Grove in 1847, a year earlier.  Lannes (p 9) indicated that the group arrived October 13, 1848.

  3. This type of migration, step-by-step, is discussed by Lars Ljungmark in Den Stora utvandringen. Svensk emigration till USA 1840-1925, (En radiokurs), Stockholm: Sveriges Radio, 1965  This work was translated by Kermit B. Westerberg, Swedish Exodus. Carbondale: Published for Swedish Pioneer Historical Society by Southern Illinois University Press, 1979.  Ljungmark/Westerberg also used the phrase way station to describe step migration, the same term I chose to explain why Jamestown became a destination for Swedish immigrants, see the earlier blog Jamestown as a Destination (Part 1).

  4. The application of the name Hessel Valley reflects the later influence of Frederick J. Johnson and his family who were from Hässleby Parish.  Mariannelund is situated in this valley in Småland, and the small river (we would more likely refer to it as a stream) passes through Hässleby and Lönneberga parishes.  Largely overlooked by local histories, Lönneberga was the parish of birth or emigration for a large number of Jamestown families.

  5. The importance of Peter Cassel (1790-1857) has been noted by historians of Swedish emigration for some time and his life has been researched extensively.  See, for example,  George M. Stephenson, Documents relating to Peter Cassel and the settlement at New Sweden, Iowa. St. Paul, Minnesota: Swedish Historical Society of America, 1929; and H . Arnold Barton (ed.), Peter Cassel and Iowa's New Sweden, Chicago: Swedish-American Historical Society, 1995.
  6. Peter Dahlberg had emigrated in 1843 and was in New York City to meet his family who arrived aboard the Carolina the same day as Peter Cassel arrived aboard the Superb.   Dahlberg had lived in Gustaf Unonius’s settlement in Pine Lake, Wisconsin and served as the guide for the Cassel group on their travel to Iowa, where Dahlberg and his family also settled.  See George T. Flom, Early Swedish Immigration to Iowa, The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol 3, No. 4 (October), 1905, p 602, and Nils William Olsson, 1967, p 44-45, 66-67.

  7. Carl Gustaf Sundius was the Apothecary in Kisa parish from 1835 to 1852.  This was the period when he knew Peter Cassel and when he started and operated an emigration agency from his Apothecary shop (1846-1852).

    Sundius is listed in later household censuses as born in Malmö in 1783 (no baptismal record yet found).  His father, Mathias Sundius, was a government official who died in 1786 when his son was three.  His mother, Jannica Marie Lundberg remarried a merchant in Simrishamn, but was a widow again in 1789.  She died in 1803 (Torrlösa CI:3 (1801-1832) p 753).  The bouppteckning of her second husband, Anton Myrman, indicates that she had five children with Sundius and two children with Myrman (Simrishamns rådhusrätt och magistrat FIIa:5 (1780-1799), p 243).  Carl Gustaf’s early life and his study in Germany (noted in several histories) are not documented.

    At some point in his early twenties Sundius began working in Denmark.  In 1807 he married a young Danish widow,  Nicoline Marie Bredahl.  They lived in Hjørring, a city located at the northern tip of the Jutland peninsula, and had five children together before they divorced in 1813.  In 1815 Sundius fathered a child with Kirstine Elisabet Lemberg.  In 1816 he married Jacobins Carolina Gercken, also a Dane.  About 1820 he moved with his family from Denmark to Mariestad, Skaraborgs län by way of Göteborg.  He worked in Mariestad for a decade (1821-1831) before moving to Vadstena in Östergötland.  Sundius left from there in 1836 for Kisa.

    Nearing age 70, Sundius moved from Kisa in 1852 to Ringsarum Parish, but lived there only a couple of years before moving to Tåby Parish for the last three years of his life.  He died on 12 October 1858 at age 75.  See additional notes.

  8. Some histories have attached a great importance to letters by Polycarpus von Schneidau on emigration from Kisa.  The likely motive for histories to connect von Schneidau to Peter Cassel is found in von Schneidau’s later, brief success in Chicago - that is to say, historians were likely name-dropping.  After Peter Cassel’s emigration, von Schneidau became an important element in the early Swedish settlement of Chicago and also became an important studio photographer.  Polycarpus von Schneidau remains historically noteworthy for his daguerreotype portraits of Abraham Lincoln and Jenny Lind.  See additional notes.

    Likewise, A.J. Lannes incorrectly associated the passengers aboard the Virginia with the Janssonists who settled in Bishop Hill, Henry County, Illinois beginning in 1846; see Civic and industrial progress of the Swedish people in Jamestown, 1848-1914. Jamestown, New York: 1914, p 9.  Lannes likely added this detail influenced by turn-of-the-century interest in the Bishop Hill community.  At least a third of the passengers of the Virginia did settle near Bishop Hill in the area of Andover, also located in Henry County, Illinois, but were not members of the Janssonist sect.

  9. Johan Peter Johansson Farman described this first leg of the journey in a letter.  See Letter No. 1644, dated North America, October 29, 1846, translation by Gunnel Asp.

    Now I want to mention our voyage to America: we traveled from Berg on May 22 and to Gothenburg on May 24 on the Sunday evening and the journey between them cost 25 Rdlr Bko. It was the first transport and it was also very hard, and when we had been in Gothenburg for half a week, as ill luck would have it, we had a sailing-vessel and then sailed off willingly.

  10. Their travel predates the Kinda canal which was not completed until the 1860s.  Railroads arrived in the region much later.

  11. The Virginia  has been researched by Birgitta Blomqvist and Jerry Lundgren and is presented on her website detailing the history of the Swedish immigrants in Swede Bend, Iowa.  Note:  I have not been able to corroborate all of their research.

    Their notes:  the Virginia was built in Kolboda shipyard in Kalmar in 1841 and was owned by Olof Wijk of Göteborg.  The cargo ship capacity was about (330 tons), the hull was about 125 feet by 25 ft girth and the vessel was rigged as a three masted barque.  The ship was captained by E. A. Jansson.  The Virginia sank off the island of Hogland in the Gulf of Finland on July 24th 1859. All on board were rescued.

  12. Olof Wijk had traveled to America in 1829-1830, including an audience with President Andrew Jackson.  His diary has been translated and annotated.  Olof Wijk, Nils William Olsson, and Mikael Grut. Olof Wijk's North American diary of 1829. Winter Park, Florida: SAG Publications, 1998.

06 November 2014

Swedes in the Civil War

"Your father wishes you to read the letters to your mother for he can not get eney one to write Swede for him for the Swede boys that were in the reg 't are cild or wonded"       Letter from Charles Gorman1 after the battle of Cold Harbor

Charles Gorman, Pvt, Co. H, 112th NY
Infantry Regiment.  Born 24 June 1824 and
baptized Carl Gårdman in Målilla Parish, 
Kalmar län, son of a Swedish Army reservist; 
immigrated  August 5, 1853 aboard  the
Franklin King, migrated from Chautauqua to
Audrain County, Missouri about 1868 where
he died in 1897. First cousin of John Halgren,
Augustus Halgren and Mrs. A.F. (Anna) Niel.
This is an introduction to the topic of participation by Swedes from Chautauqua and Warren Counties in the American Civil War.

I am currently studying the period from 1850-1855. However, there are so many references to Civil War veterans in the biographies of early Swedish immigrants that I wanted to begin structuring the information that I am coming across. For now, this is a first glimpse based on incomplete research. 

I have been surprised that the participation of area Swedes has been UNDERESTIMATED in local histories. My data is incomplete, but the estimate of 50 or so Swedes2 is much less than the 70 Swedes so far documented. In addition there are another 9 who are likely Swedes who I have not yet been able to document, plus I assume there will be a few additional Swedes after studying the immigrants that arrived from 1855-1860.

Larger questions await completion of the research: Did Swedish immigrants participate more than native-born Warren-ites [sic?] or Chautauquans?  Did the Swedes participate more than other ethnic groups?  Did the Swedes suffer a higher casualty rate? Did the sons of Swedish military families participate more than other Swedes?

So why this difficulty in the research, why the underestimation?

One reason may be a dissimilarity between pre-war and post Civil War Swedes. The latter group dominated the area when the histories were written and often had no familial connection with the earlier Swedes.

A second reason for the underestimation may be the migration of early Swedes away from the area after the Civil War.  This factor is easy to overlook.

A third reason is clerical.  Start with the differences between New York and Pennsylvania in both record keeping and histories, and then superimpose Swedish names that often varied, morphed or were aliases and the resulting confusion3 is difficult to untangle.  For example, George Thompson was a Swede who enlisted in Company H of the 112th NY Infantry Regiment and died from a shell wound in the right thigh in Black Island, South Carolina on 25 August, 1863. He is easily confused with George A. Thompson who served in the same company of the same regiment but who was not Swedish and lived until 1907.  Or he could be confused with George Thompson of Company K of the 112th who was from New York City.  Our phrase red tape has its origin in the administration of the Civil War pensions.  Thanks to the paperwork required for his widow's pension, we know that one of those George Thompsons was also known as Augustus Anderson, was Swedish and had a connection to Iowa before he enlisted in Chautauqua County.

A fourth reason for the difficulty of the research (but not for the underestimation) is that many of the Swedes reenlisted in other units. For example, Adolph F. Ekholm (Adolf F. Eckholm/Adolphus Eckholm) served for the last eighteen months of the war in three different units: the 72nd, 120th and 73rd NY Infantry Regiments.

A fifth reason for the underestimation is that several Swedes decided to enlist in the Union Navy later in the war.  Civil War research commonly overlooks service in the Navy and it is said that the record keeping of the Navy makes research more difficult.  The Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System (CWSS) available on the National Park Service website has listings for more than 6 million soldiers.  It's database includes only a subset, 18,000 African American sailors, of the estimated 26,000 to 51,000 sailors who served during the war.

The day-to-day recounting of the Civil War in Opinionator/Disunion columns of the New York Times has illustrated the hardships of the duration of our war a hundred and fifty years later. We have now passed the anniversary of the tragedy of the battle of Cold Harbor that hit the 112th NY Infantry (The Chautauqua Regiment) hard. But still ahead there is more difficult fighting to remember before celebrating the sesquicentennial mustering-out of the regiment in Raleigh, North Carolina on 13 June 1865.

I’ll get to the stories of F. Mauritz Fincke, a Swedish doctor whose participation has been ignored and August N. Jones (my great-grandfather’s uncle) who lost his right arm at Cold Harbor. But before that I’ll return to the saga of the Johnson girls and a three-part description of the Swedish settlement in Sugar Grove.

The list below is in process and is not complete. If you know of omissions in this list or find errors, please contact me or leave a comment. Thanks.

Principal Units for Recruits in Chautauqua and Warren Counties

Jul 186172nd New York Infantry RegimentNYS Unit InformationRoster
Aug 186152nd New York Infantry RegimentNYS Unit InformationRosterweb site
Sep 1861100th New York Infantry RegimentNYS Unit InformationRoster
Sep 186149th New York Infantry RegimentNYS Unit InformationRosterweb siteweb site
Nov 18619th New York Cavalry RegimentNYS Unit InformationRosterweb site
Sep 1862112th New York Infantry RegimentNYS Unit InformationRosterweb site
111th Pennsylvania Infantry RegimentPA Unit Information
21st Pennsylvania Cavalry RegimentPA Unit Information
82nd Pennsylvania Infantry RegimentPA Unit Information


Barram, Rick. The 72nd New York Infantry in the Civil War: A History and Roster, McFarland Publishers (http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1664168), 2014.

Bates, Samuel P.  One Hundred and Eleventh RegimentHistory of Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861-5, Volume III,  Singerly, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 1870, p 1013-1058.

Bidwell, Frederick D.  History of the Forty-Ninth New York Volunteers. Albany: J.B. Lyon Company, Printers, 1916.

Brown, Henri Le Fevre.  History of the Third Regiment, Excelsior Brigade, 72d New York Volunteer Infantry, 1861-1865. Journal Printing Co., Jamestown, New York, 1902.

Cheney, Newel. History of the Ninth Regiment, New York Volunteer Cavalry, a War of 1861-1865: Compiled from Letters, Diaries, Recollections and Official Records. Poland Center, New York, 1901.

Hokanson, Nels.  Swedish Immigrants In Lincoln's Time, Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York, 1942.

Hyde, William L., History of the One Hundredth and Twelfth Regiment N.Y. Volunteers, Fredonia, New York, 1866.

New York. Adjutant General's Office. Annual Report of the State of New York, Albany, various years. A record of the commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers and privates, of the regiments which were organized in the State of New York : and called into the service of the United States to assist in suppressing the Rebellion caused by the Secession of some of the Southern States from the Union, A. D. 1861, as taken from the muster rolls on file in the Adjutant General's Office, S. N. Y. New York. Adjutant General's Office. A record of the commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers and privates, of the regiments which were organized in the State of New York : and called into the service of the United States to assist in suppressing the Rebellion caused by the Secession of some of the Southern States from the Union, A. D. 1861, as taken from the muster rolls on file in the Adjutant General's Office, S. N. Y.
Note:  These records are an essential secondary source for military service, however, there are frequent omissions regarding the full service record of individual soldiers.

  1. Naomi Lewis, The Gormans - The Swedish Connection, September 30, 2010 blog, transcription from a copy of the original letter in the private collection of the Gorman family (http://storytailorlegends.blogspot.com/2010/09/gormans-swedish-connection.html accessed: 2014.11.06).
  2. Norman P. Carlson, The Civil War in M. Lorimer Moe Saga from the Hills, 1983,  p 216.  Carlson bases his estimate on Lannes (46 Swedes mentioned) and a review of George D. Graham’s list for Swedish names.  Nels Hokanson’s Swedish Immigrants in Lincoln’s Time, 1942 also relies on this methodology of “Swedish Names” and arrives at 51 Swedes.  The more complex historical reality is that not all Andersons, Johnsons and Samuelsons were Swedes nor were all men named Augustus, etc.  Anglicized names like Jones, Smith, Baker, Brown, Lake, et al, were so frequent in this early period of immigration (1850-1855) that it is insufficient to identify Swedes in Muster Rolls simply by their names.  The recent availability of digitized images of original documents makes this research much easier.  Nevertheless, I have been surprised how difficult documenting the Swedish origin of Civil War soldiers and sailors remains. 
  3. The compilation by Dolores Davidson (Chautuaqua County Genweb, 2003-4) proves useful because its multiple entries under a single name highlight the confusion/complexity in this research.

12 October 2014

Jamestown as a Destination (Part 3)

A previous blog discussed the general factors of location and cheap land  that brought Swedish immigrants to the Jamestown area.  This is the second blog that looks at the specific reasons for the next wave of immigrants.

The Second Wave (1846/1848)

The second wave of Swedish immigrants arrived in America in 1846 and settled in Sugar Grove township in 1848.  They chose Warren County as a consequence of difficult circumstances. Their story has been repeated for more than a century and is the de facto first chapter of Swedish-American history for the area.1
The story has been retold for so long2 that it is helpful to examine the facts behind this saga and identify the inconsistencies of various histories.  The next three blogs will look at the documentation of the events in this story:  a description of the origins of the emigrants, an accounting of their subsistence in Buffalo (1846-1848), and the documentation of their first years of settlement in Sugar Grove.
The immigrants who established the first Swedish community in Warren County were all from the same area of Sweden located along the border between Östergötland, Kalmar and Jönköping.  They emigrated from four parishes: Hässleby, Kisa, Oppeby and Lönneberga.
The 1846-1848 Swedish emigrants were from these Swedish parishes
The settlers in 1848 can be considered as four groups:  
  • Frederick J. Johnson and family  plus his two brothers and a sister (five adults and two children) from Hässleby,
  •  Germund Johnson and family (two adults and three children) from Kisa,
  • Peter Oberg and family  (two adults and three children) from Oppeby,  and 
  • the Lönneberga group of unmarried workers (Samuel Dahl, 29; Carolina Dahl, 20; Lena Lovisa Petersdotter, 23; and Lisa Lena Andersdotter, 15). 
Listed below are these first Swedish settlers in Sugar Grove Township.  Included in this table are columns indicating social class and mobility (the number of household moves that an individual made prior to emigrating).  The names in bold type  are Louisa and Sara Sophia (Josephine) Johnson whose experiences were the basis for this saga and Johanna Charlotta Jonsdotter who was noted as the first Swede to move to Jamestown (actually Falconer) in June 1849.  Not included is the retired soldier named Norman3  who appears in the histories but has not been identified in manifests or censuses nor otherwise documented.

Ref ImmigrantNameBirthSexParish Social ClassMovesEmigrationDeathLocation
1846.003Frederick J. JohnsonJonas Fredrik Jonsson1818MHässlebyfarmer, son of kyrkvärd (church vestryman) Olsson 1967:1531
Påtorp, Hässleby
1904Jamestown, Chautauqua County, New York
1846.004Mrs. Frederick J. (Charlotta) JohnsonCharlotte Svensdotter1820FLönnebergamilitary family31905Sugar Grove, Warren County, Pennsylvania
1846.005Fredericka L. JohnsonLovisa1843FHässlebyfarmer01925Jamestown, Chautauqua County, New York
i0187Sven Johan JohnsonSven Johan1845MHässlebyfarmer01846At sea aboard the VIRGINIA
i0166Caroline JohnsonCarolina1847FErie County, New Yorkimmigrant farmworkers0First generation Swedish-American1865Sugar Grove, Warren County, Pennsylvania
1846.006Charles M. JohnsonCarl Magnus Jonsson1826MHässlebyfarmer1Påtorp, Hässleby1890Paxton, Ford County, Illinois
1848.006Andrew P. JohnsonAnders Peter Jonsson1821MHässlebyfarmer2Marriane- lund, Hässleby1879Vasa, Goodhue County, Minnesota
1848.007Mrs. Frank A. (Charlotte) PetersonJohanna Charlotta Jonsdotter1831FHässlebyfarmer2Överarps, Hässleby1921Falconer, Chautauqua County, New York
1846.007Germund JohnsonGermund Jonsson1815MVästra Enebycrofter1
Varbo, Kisa
Hancock, Stevens County, Minnesota
1846.008Mrs. Germund (Catherine) JohnsonCatharina Jonsdotter1809FVästra Enebycrofter31887
1846.009Mrs. William S. (Louisa) GrowInga Lovisa1837FVästra Enebycrofter11922Maxwell, Lac Qui Parle County, Minnesota
1846.010Mrs. William G. (Josephine) AllenSara Sophia1840FVästra Enebycrofter11891St. Paul, Ramsey County, Minnesota
1846.011Mrs.John C. (Charlotta) SundellCharlotta1844FKisacrofter01931Stevens County, Minnesota
i0120Eliza Jane JohnsonEliza Jane1848FWarren County, Pennsylvaniaimmigrant farmworkers0First generation Swedish-American1875Minnesota
1848.001Peter ObergPeter Håkansson Åberg1798MOppebycrofter

Nöden, Oppeby
New Albany, Floyd County, Indiana
1848.002Mrs. Peter (Margareta) ObergMaja Greta Eliasdotter1799FÅtvid crofter
1848.003Pontius ObergPontius1829MOppebycrofter
1848.004Oscar OburgAnsgarius1833MOppebycrofter
1919Ashville, Chautauqua County, New York
1848.005Frank OburgFrans Victor1838MOppebycrofter
1903Dayton, Montgomery County, Ohio
1846.001Samuel DahlSamuel Petersson Dahl1819MLönnebergamilitary family6Saxemåla Säteri, Lönneberga1866Sugar Grove, Warren County, Pennsylvania
1846.002Mrs. Charles M. (Carolina) JohnsonCarolina Petersdotter Dahl1828FLönnebergamilitary family3Saxemåla Säteri, Lönneberga1909Paxton, Ford County, Illinois
1848.008Mrs. Eric M. (Lena Louisa) AndersonLena Lovisa Petersdotter1825FLönnebergarusthållere (farmer)2Sjöarp, Lönneberga1908Vasa, Goodhue County, Minnesota
1848.009Mrs. Otto (Lisa Lena) PetersonLisa Lena Andersdotter1833FPelarnehemmansbru- kare (farmer), orphan>3Saxemåla Säteri, Lönneberga1921Jamestown, Chautauqua County, New York

This Second Wave of immigrants who settled in 1848 in Warren County became the basis for later Swedes to choose Jamestown as a destination in America.  More than half of these 20 settlers would later move to the Midwest but not before establishing enough of a community to attract future immigrants, become part of the first Swedes to live in Jamestown, and establish the Swedish Methodist and Lutheran Church in the area.
Two other families of Swedish immigrants arrived in America during this period (1846-1848) but are part of the later waves of Swedes who settled in the area in the 1850s.
Sven Lindahl and family from Sya Parish (Östergötland) arrived in New York in 1846 and then lived for seven years in Buffalo (Black Rock).  In 1853 they settled near Mayville in Chautauqua County.
Otto and Christina Stenberg were from Jönköping and had migrated to northern Sweden.  They emigrated from Mo Parish, Gävleborgs län and are among the very few Swedes in the Jamestown area who departed from Gävle, arriving in New York City aboard the barque NEW YORK on March 20, 1847.  They lived for eight years in a small Swedish community in Rockland Township in Sullivan County, New York (Catskills - not far from the eastern terminus of old Route 17) and moved to the Town of Busti in 1855 before settling in Columbus Township in Warren County.  The Stenbergs were the only immigrants associated with the Janssonists sect who settled in the area.

  1. The earliest published description of this saga that I have found is Eric Johnson and C.F. Peterson, Svenskarne i Illinois, 1880. p 366-7. Nearly all later versions reference the details found in this work. For one of the current repetitions online, see Richard H. Hulan, Swedes in Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission website.  A description of this Swedish community that does not describe their journey was written by John Lawson, The Swedish Settlement in Chandlers Valley, Jamestown Daily Journal, February 4, 1870, p 4.
  2. In addition to Johnson and Peterson (1880), this story has been published in works by Eric Norelius (1890, Lutheran minister and historian), O.W. Anderson (1898, Newspaper editor), A.J. Lannes (1914, Newspaper editor), and J.A. Carlstrom (Lutheran minister). Each of these writers had contact with different and various individuals who were the first settlers.
  3. “En gammal soldat vid namn Norman från Horn i Östergötland” Johnson and Peterson, 1880, p 366. Horn Parish documents were destroyed by fire in 1851. There is no one on the VIRGINIA or THRACIAN manifest who fits the description as a retired soldier. Anders Johansson Norman who traveled on the VIRGINIA was not a retired soldier and he settled in Iowa (see Nilsson 1967, p 74, 75). No Swede enumerated in the 1850 census matches this description. The old soldier named Norman is a mystery (or an error).    [Further research has added some additional details]

    The historian George Flom wrote that Anders Norrman8 and his wife settled in Burlington, Iowa in 1847.  Research about the Swedish settlers in Sugar Grove has raised questions about this fact. Anders Norman is listed on the manifest of the Virginia with Inga Catherine Erlandsdotter (his second wife) and with his son Carl Gustaf (his last child by his first wife).  Johnson and Peterson in 1880 noted that the first group of settlers in Sugar Grove included “En gammal soldat vid namn Norman från Horn i Östergötland.”  It seems relatively certain that they were referring to Andrew Norman.  He has been documented as emigrating from adjacent Ulrika parish (not from Horn, whose parish records from this period were almost entirely lost due to a church fire) where he had lived for 10 years.  Before that he lived in Malexander parish and before 1825 he had served as a lifgrenadier in Storhagen, Torpa parishAnders Jonsson Norrman (aka Andrew Norman) was born in Linderås parish in 1794 and was among the oldest passengers aboard the Virginia (fifty-two years old).

    Andrew Norman has not been identified in the 1850 Census.  However, a Charles Norman (age 24) was working for Laban Hazeltine in Pine Township in Warren County and this is almost certainly Andrew's son, Carl Gustaf.

    It seems plausible that there is a connection between the settlement of Andrew Norman in Burlington in 1847 with a description of a trip made by Samuel Dahl17  in 1847 to scout locations in the West.  This trip is noted by A. J. Lannes (1915, p 9) but provides no information about the places visited, only that Dahl returned to the group in Buffalo with a negative report about the quality of the water.   It is easy to speculate that both Dahl and Norman traveled to Illinois and Iowa in the summer of 1847 and that both returned to Buffalo.  In this scenario Andrew Norman would  have remained in Buffalo until the group migrated in October 1848 to Sugar Grove and then decided to settle in Iowa (leaving his son in Warren County).  Whether Andrew Norman was in Burlington or in Sugar Grove in 1850 is open to debate. 

    Andrew Norman alone was enumerated in the 1852 Iowa state census in Burlington.  He is documented in later censuses living in Burlington with his wife Caroline.  It seems likely that Inga Catherine, his second wife had died before 1852 and that he had remarried.  Norman died in the decade before 1880.  His wife was listed as Carrie Norman and denoted as a widow in that census.  She died in Burlington in 1896.  [See more details in the article The Buffalo Years, 1846-1848 (Part 2).]