20 May 2019

Swedes in the Civil War (Part 2)



Peter Lind, 111th Regiment, Company D; died 15 Sep 1862 in
Alexandria from disease. Grave Site No. 4321, Soldiers Home
National Cemetery. Photo by Catherine Pfaffenroth ©2018 
As clear as mud. I have gained new insight into the peculiar difficulties of researching in Civil War documents. For most cases all is straight forward, even for Swedes. But there are a number of soldiers and most sailors who would require substantially more effort to properly document them.

 Several issues about the Swedes who fought for our freedoms in the Civil War remain unresolved. I still don't understand why some of the Swedes used aliases (i.e., August Anderson aka George Thompson). And, I still don't understand why Swedish participation in the war was underestimated by local Swedish histories. At least 28 Swedes from our area died in the conflict.

The oversimplification that Swedes were super patriotic and never deserted isn't confirmed by my research. Sometimes it is hard to know if a Swede's desertion was a misunderstanding of paperwork or a dereliction of duty, but it occurred.


Recently I was reading the mudslinging during the 1894 campaign for Chautauqua County sheriff between John P. Gelm and Bela B. Lord.  Gelm’s supporters brought up the issue of Lord’s non-participation in the Civil War, but Gelm doesn't seem to have served either.  Gelm’s obituary1 explained, “Under inbördeskriget utgjorde han en av besättningen på en flodångare på Mississippi floden och upplevdo en massa äfventyr.”  Roughly translated as: In the Civil War he was a crew member of a steamboat on the Mississippi River and experienced a lot of adventure.  Gelm is not listed in the 1890 United States Federal Census Veteran Schedule and I have found no documentation of any service by him during the war.

Gold Star Families with multiple losses2  


Peter and Sara Lind of Wrightsville from Hässleby parish, Jönköpings län


  • Peter Lind [1855.005] died 15 September 1862 in Alexandria from disease. Enlisted 111th PA Infantry Regiment, Co. D 
  • John Lind [1855.007] died 28 December 1864 in Savannah, SC. Enlisted  111th PA Infantry Regiment, Co. H 

Isaac and Inga Agrelius of Brokenstraw from Järstad parish, Östergötlands län


  • Charles G. Agrelius [1851.107] died 24 August 1862 in Chester, PA hospital from wounds. Enlisted 4th PA Cavalry, Co. M. 
  •  Andrew P. Agrelius [1851.106] died 12 October 1864 in P.O.W. camp, Florence, SC. Enlisted  83rd PA Infantry, Co. D. 

Ely (Finke) Brown of Jamestown orphaned at age 8, taken in by Leroy Brown


  • Louise Finke [1854.009], his mother, had died 28 November 1862 in Jamestown from consumption.  Dr. Finke had returned to Jamestown in time for her death and signed her death certificate.
  • Frederick Maurits Finke [1854.008] died 21 December 1862 in Jamestown from typhoid. He had received a disability discharge 12 October 1862 from his position as hospital steward at the U.S. Army Hospital3  in Newark, NJ due to two months of dysentery. 
  • Gustaf Finke [1854.010], Ely's older brother, had enlisted 1 December 1861 in the NY 100th Infantry and was taken P.O.W. in May 1864 and sent to Andersonville Prison.  He survived and after the war moved to Michigan – it is uncertain if he returned to Jamestown. He settled in Augusta (Kalamazoo County), Michigan where he was known as Gustavus M. Finkey. 


Frederick M. Finke served at the new U.S. Army Hospital in Newark, NJ.
This hospital was a converted warehouse with convenient access by train
for the transported wounded soldiers.  The hospital was known by various
names and after the war was known as Ward Hospital.


Civil War Dead (Swedish Immigrants)4  

Database
Military
No.
Immigrant Name
Birth
Death
Muster Roll Name
Assignment
Co.
Rank
Enlisted
Burial
Find A Grave No.
1851.118
Otto Nelson
24 Mar 1837 Västra Eneby, Östergötland
16 Dec 1861 Baltimore, MD
Otto Nelson
NY 72 Inf
B
Pvt
28 May 1861
Arlington National Cemetery
29614307
1852.015
John Peterson
1 Jun 1836 Lönneberga, Kalmar
10 May 1862 Williamsburg, VA
John A. Peterson
NY 72 Inf
B
Cpl
28 May 1861
At Sea?
31167264
1851.044
Charles J. Jones
25 Oct 1839 Viserum, Kalmar
19 May 1862 New York City
Charles J. Jones
NY 9 Calv
C
Pvt
1 Oct 1861
Cypress Hills National Cemetery
2591783
1851.092
John A. Berg
14 Aug 1838 Hässleby, Jönköping
7 Jun 1862 David's Island, NY
John Barge
NY 9 Calv
F
Cpl
2 Oct 1861
David's Island, NYC
nic
1851.106
Charles Agrelius
26 Dec 1840 Järstad, Östergötland
24 Aug 1862 Chester, PA
Charles G. Agrelius, Charles G. Agreelins
4th PA Calv
M
Pvt
Philadelphia National Cemetery
2538301, 48146942
1852.046
John Anderson
18 Aug 1838 Hult, Jönköping
14 Oct 1862 Antietam, MD
John Anderson
PA 111 Inf
D
Pvt
22 Nov 1861
Antietam National Cemetery
39175930
1855.005
Peter J. Lind
6 May 1843 Hässleby, Jönköping
29 Oct 1862 Alexandria, VA
Peter J. Lind
PA 111 Inf
D
Pvt
26 Dec 1861
Soldiers Home National Cemetery
33636910, 45122389
[i3196]
Conrad Benz
1840 likely Baden, Germany
2 Nov 1862 Suffolk, VA
Conrad Benz aka Conrad Bens
NY 1B SSh
7
Pvt
13 Aug 1862
Hampton National Cemetery
357719
[i1937]
Charles Peterson
13 Feb 1835 Stora Åby, Östergötland
5 Dec 1862 Chantilly, VA
Charles Peterson
NY 9 Calv
C
Sgt
20 Sep 1861
Lake View Cemetery
144457564
1852.226
John Lawson
30 Jun 1844 Hillared, Älvsborg
20 Dec 1862 Suffolk, VA
John Lawson also George Lawson
NY 1B SSh
7
Pvt
15 Aug 1862
Hampton National Cemetery
3086999
1854.008
Frederick M. Fincke
14 Dec 1815 Stockholm
21 Dec 1862 Jamestown, NY
Frederick M. Fincke
NY 72 Inf
B
Pvt
28 May 1861
Lake View Cemetery
199265158
NY 3 Hosp
Hospital Steward
6 Jun 1861
[i1941]
Augustus Anderson
16 Jul 1833 Liared, Älvsborg
25 Apr 1863 Block Island, SC
George Thompson aka August Anderson
NY 112 Inf
H
Pvt.
28 Aug 1862
Beaufort National Cemetery
nic
[i3138]
Elias B. Skone
1842 (Age 20) Sweden
2 May 1863 Chancellorsville, VA
Elias B. Skone. Scone.
NY 154 Inf
E
Pvt
22 Aug 1862
Chancellorsville Battlefield
nic
[i3217]
Ole Olstrom
1838    Sweden
17 May 1863
Ole Olstrom, aka Alo Olstrom
NY 49 Inf
Aug 1862
Possibly Yorktown Battlefield Cemetery
nic
[ i0842 ]
Charles P. Frank
1824 Sweden
20 Jul 1863 Charleston, SC
Charles P. Frank, Frank Peterson
NY 100 Inf
E
Pvt
3 Oct 1861
P.O.W. camp
nic
1852.099
Charles Neil
5 Jun 1820 Målilla, Kalmar
29 Aug 1863 Charleston, SC
Charles Neil
NY 112 Inf
D
Corp
2 Aug 1862
Beaufort National Cemetery
2953224
1853.034
Peter Lawson
10 Oct 1844 Björketorp, Älvsborg
8 Oct 1863 Charleston, SC
Peter Lawson
NY 112 Inf
E
Pvt
2 Aug 1862
Beaufort National Cemetery
2951706
[i1943]
Andrew Johnson
1834     Sweden
20 Feb 1864 Richmond, VA
Andrew Johnson
NY 72 Inf
G
Pvt
17 Jul 1861
unknown
nic
1852.155
Andrew Jones
29 Aug 1840 Asby, Östergötland
6 Apr 1864 Cold Harbor, VA
Andrew Johnson
NY 1B SSh
7
Pvt/ Corpl
29 Aug 1862
Cold Harbor National Cemetery
3069986
1850.031
Frederick Lawson
4 Oct 1838 Pelarne, Kalmar
11 Jun 1864 Trevilian Station, VA
Frederick Lawson
NY 9 Calv
B
Pvt
23 Sep 1861
possibly Oakland Cemetery. Louisa, VA
nic
1851.034
Charles Hultberg
25 Jun 1846 Frödinge, Kalmar
20 Jul 1864 Peachtree Creek, GA
Charles Hultberg
PA 111 Inf
D
Pvt
22 Nov 1861
likely battlefield grave
nic
nic
Andrew Anderson
1841 Larvik, Norway
21 Jul 1864 Andersonville, GA
Andrew Anderson
NY 100 Inf
I
Pvt
19 Aug 1862
Andersonville National Cemetery
51150726
1851.107
Andrew P. Agrelius
23 Jul 1843 Järstad, Östergötland
15 Oct 1864 Florence, SC
Andrew P. Agrelius, Andrew Agrelius, Andrew P. Agrilius
PA 83 Inf
D/F
Pvt
16 Feb 1864
Florence National Cemetery
41164753
1851.129
John Carlston
1821 Sweden
27 Oct 1864 Darbytown Road, VA
John Carleson, John Carlston
NY 112 Inf
E
Pvt
19 Sep 1864
unknown
nic
[i2844]
Lars John Johnson
2 Sep 1844 Vimmerby, Kalmar
18 Nov 1864 Fort Monroe, VA
John Johnson
NY 112 Inf
D
Pvt
30 Jul 1862
Hampton National Cemetery
3085667
1855.007
John Lind
24 Jun 1847 Hässleby, Jönköping
28 Dec 1864 Savannah, GA
John Lind
PA 111 Inf
H
Pvt
16 Feb 1864
Beaufort National Cemetery
2951869, 45122369
1850.063
John A. Delain
21 Nov 1840 Djursdala, Kalmar
6 Jan 1865 Salisbury, NC
John A. Delain, John A. Delaine
NY 112 Inf
H
Pvt.
28 Aug 1862
Salisbury National Cemetery
109659725
[i3198]
Andrew Anderson
1838     Sweden
17 Jan 1865 Fort Fisher, NC
Andrew Anderson
NY 112 Inf
E
Pvt
5 Aug 1862
unknown
nic
1851.008
Peter J. Peterson
27 Nov 1842 Vimmerby, Kalmar
19 Jan 1865 Fort Fisher, NC
Peter John Peterson
NY 112 Inf
E
Pvt
5 Aug 1862
possibly Wilmington National Cemetery
109667407
nic
Peter Nelson
1840    Denmark
15 Apr 1865 Hampton, VA
Peter Nelson
NY 100 Inf
H
Pvt
19 Jan 1865
Hampton National Cemetery
3090111
1852.138
Augustus Kron
24 Jun 1835 Sund, Östergötland
after 1865 NYS census
Augustus Crane
NY 72 Inf
B
Sgt
28 May 1861
unknown
nic
NY 120 Inf
C
23 Jun 1864


Recent Indentifications


William S. Anderson [1852.268] enlisted 30 Aug 1864 in Buffalo in the U.S. Navy and served as a Landsman aboard the USS Union and USS North Carolina. He was discharged 6 June 1865 in Brooklyn. His identification was established through the pension application. He was born 21 July 1843 in Vinslöv parish, Kristianstads lan and baptized Sven, son of Pehr Andersson and Anna Andersdotter. His family emigrated from that same parish in 1852 and arrived aboard the INDUSTRIE in New York City 27 July 1852. The family first settled in Peoria, Illinois, but moved to Jamestown in the 1860s. After the war Anderson returned to Peoria and then settled in Benton County, Iowa before moving late in his life to Oklahoma where he died 30 Apr 1907 in Streeter, Roger Mills County.
Otto Nelson [1851.118] died 16 Dec 1861 Camp Wool, Baltimore, MD from disease and buried in Arlington Cemetery. Enlisted 28 May 1861 in Kiantone in 72nd New York Infantry Regiment, Co. B. He is very likely identified as Nils Otto Larsson, born 24 March 1837 in Västra Eneby parish, Östergötlands län, son of Lars Persson and Stina Nilsdotter. His father died in 1849. His mother and siblings emigrated from Västra Eneby in 1851 and arrived 9 September 1841 aboard THEMIS in New York City.

Endnotes

  1. Vårt Land, January 2, 1919, p 8.
  2. The designation of Gold Star Mothers was introduced after World War I, and wasn't used at the time of the Civil War.
  3. "In 1862 Marcus L. Ward assumed the responsibility for organizing a hospital to treat the trains full of Civil War wounded. He borrowed money from the NJ state government and leased a four-story building. In two days the building was readied for occupancy, complete with hospital equipment. The summer of 1865 saw the closing of the hospital, which was converted into a state soldiers home.
    The Ward Hospital was located in several factory and warehouse buildings east of Centre Street, and between the railroad tracks of what is now the freight station of the Pennsylvania Railroad, and the river. The wounded and sick men were brought on from the front or from other hospitals, in trains and moved directly out of the cars into the hospital. The hospital had bed accommodations for 1,400 patients. From the time of its opening until after the close of the war convalescent soldiers were constantly to be seen on Newark streets." 
    Source: "Newark Care Facilities, Old Newark" http://newarkcarefacilities.com/wardhosp.php accessed 21 May 2019.  Note: the images of the hospital shown above are included on this website but do not include full citations.
  4. Table entries in italics denote information that is not available or corroborated.

    Conrad Benz [i3196] is almost certainly the younger brother of Joseph Benz who identified his birth place as Baden in the U.S. censuses, however, Conrad is listed in Hemlandet as a Swedish recruit.  It is possible that Conrad Benz was a Swedish orphan who adopted that surname. 

    Ole Olstrom [i3217] is an unknown soldier whose documentation was likely complicated by his lack of English.  He was credited to the Town of Ellicott but does not show up in the regimental roster. 

    Andrew Anderson [nic] is listed as Norwegian in his Find A Grave entry.  He enlisted in Buffalo and served in Company I and is similar to Andrew Anderson [i2519] who served in the same regiment, enlisted in Mayville, served in Company E and was a P.O.W. at Andersonville.

    Peter Nelson [nic] was a Dane who enlisted in the Town of Portland, however he was not identified in the local history of Portland.  The common practice of supplying Town enlistment quotas by paying bounties to non-residents greatly complicates the identification of civil war soldiers.



16 April 2019

Migrations


I have completed a review (cleaning) of the data set of about 1820 Swedes who I have documented as having resided in the Jamestown area from 1844 to 1865.  I will be working on visualizing the data and will be posting these statistics soon.  Below is a quick, first look showing the stream of Swedes.  Note that this graph is based on the population of immigrants and their children who lived in the area during this time period plus the immigrants who had lived in the area and then migrated to other parts of the country and their children.  Jamestown, Chandlers Valley and the dead comprise the largest population groups.


Population stream of documented Swedish settlers and their children (n = 1822 in 1865). The group "No Data" are those documented Swedes whose trajectory is unknown - many of these may have died. Graphic developed in RAWGraphs.






 


Onward (especially to Minnesota)


A significant percentage of the documented Swedish immigrants who lived in our area decided to migrate westward. For this research, I have counted those immigrants who spent at least a winter in our area before moving on, but the duration of their time in our area ranged from a documented stay of only a month to residencies of more than a decade.

From  the very beginning of the Swedish presence in Chautauqua and Warren County, the area served as a way station for those heading further West.  Some who traveled with that small group who arrived in 1848 in Warren County moved on to Iowa before 1850 (remember that Iowa was the original destination of the pioneers who settled in Chandlers Valley). Other groups, also headed for Iowa,  ended up in Illinois, and stepping stones of Swedish communities developed along the westward migration.  Illinois and then Minnesota increasingly became the destination of Swedes in the 1850s.

The mindset of these Swedes may be represented in the remarks of an unknown author published in  the Stockholm paper, Aftonbaldet.


Skildringar från en resa i Nordamerikas Förenta Stater. 
Af —s.g.
Filadelfia den 10 Augusti 1853

Den 14 sistl. April företog jag en utfart från Newyork till de vestra staterna, dels för att lära känna tillståndet i denna del af den stora «unionen» dels ock landsmän.  K. 5 e.m. lemnade jag Newyork för att gå på Erie jernbana, och var kl. 2 e.m. följande dag i Dunkirk vid Erie-sjön, sedan jag tillryggalagt en sträcka af 78 sv. mil.  Dunkirk är ett af de många bevis, huru hastigt städer uppblomstra i detta land. För omkring 2:ne är sedan räknade denna stad endast 500 envånare, och hade nu 5000.  Här träffade jag en svensk veterinärläkare, hvilken jag lärde känna på resan öfver Atlantiska hafvet ifrån Sverige förliden sommar.  Denne underrättade mig, att i Chatauque county, nära Dunkirk, omkring 20 svenskar hade nedsatt sig, men som de icke funno sig väl i denna trakt, hade de beslutat att flytta till vestern. De östra staterna stå i allmänhet vida efter de vestra i rukbarhet, hvilket har till följd en beständig utvandring frånöstern till det «stor vestern».  Hade Kalifornens guld och mississippi datens ruktbarhet varit kända och tillgängliga för de första europeiska emigranter till detta land, så hade de östra staterna måhända till denna dag varit i indianernas händer.

[roughly translated]
Depictions from a journey in North America's United States 
By —s.g.
Philadelphia on August 10, 1853

Last April 14th, I undertook a trip from New York to the western states to get to know that part of the great "Union" and know the situation of my fellow countrymen.  At 5 a.m. I left New York to go on the Erie Railway, and arrived at 2 a.m. the following day in Dunkirk on Lake Erie, having traveled a stretch of 78 Swedish miles [518 miles or 834 km]. Dunkirk is one of the many proofs of how fast cities bloom in this country.  About two years ago this city counted only 500 people, and now has 5000. Here I met a Swedish veterinarian, whom I got to know on the journey over the Atlantic Ocean from Sweden last summer.1   He informed me that in Chautauqua County, near Dunkirk, about 20 Swedes resided who had found themselves well in this region, but they had decided to move to the West. The eastern states are generally far below the western in fertility, resulting in a permanent migration from the east to the "Great West." Had California's gold and the Mississippi Valley's reputation been known and accessible to the first European emigrants to this country, then the Eastern States might still be in Indian hands today.

Source:  Aftonbladet, 2 Sep 1853, p 3.


Little attention is given in our local history to this migration of Swedes from our area to the frontier settlements of the  Midwest. The Jamestown area had important ties to the early settlers in the Vasa community in Goodhue County, Minnesota and in the Watertown community in Carver County, Minnesota.

Photo from  Eric Norelius, Vasa illustrata: en borgerlig
 och kyrklig kulturbild / framställd.
 Vasa 1905, p 17

Vasa, Minnesota


The earliest migrants from our area to Minnesota seem to have been Eric and Catherine Anderson and their family who left Sugar Grove and settled in Vasa, Minnesota in 1855.  Little was written by Norelius about this family, so their motives and connection to Hans Mattson are unknown.  Norelius  included a photograph of their original log house in his history of Vasa.


Photo from  Eric Norelius, Vasa illustrata, p 12.







Among this group who left, the most significant were Germund and Catherine Johnson and their children, the founding family of the Chandlers Valley Swedish community, who moved out West in 1857.  They left our area after being at the center of the new Swedish settlement in Sugar Grove, after ten years working to clear a farm from the forest, and after giving land for the cemetery and establishing the first church for the community.

Photos from  Eric Norelius, Vasa illustrata, p 128.
The Johnsons were part of the earliest settlers in Hans Mattson's venture in Vasa and lived nearly three decades as neighbors to the influential Lutheran minister Eric Norelius and his wife Inga.  Eric Norelius wrote only brief, respect-filled descriptions of Germund Johnson.2  Germund and Catherine were founding members of the Methodist Church in Vasa and were leaders in that congregation.

Watertown, Minnesota


The earliest settlers in the Watertown area of Carver County, Minnesota were the Peter Justus3  family who "had lived some time in Pennsylvania" and claimed land at Swede Lake in August 1856.

Daniel Justus family, the first Swedish settlers in Carver County, posing in front of their first house at Swede Lake. Date of photograph unknown (1880s?), collection of the American Swedish Institute, Minneapolis , OCLC number 856938207




Endnotes

  1. The Swedish veterinarian was Peter Magnes [1852.265] who arrived 20 June 1852 aboard the SELMA in New York City.  Born 12 March 1824 in Mellby Parish, Jönköpings län and baptized Jonas Peter Magnusson, he emigrated from Vetlanda parish.  One of his letters home was paraphrased and published in Folkets Röst (Kalmar) 22 January 1853, p 2.  He moved west and was a pioneer Swedish settler in Denver, Colorado.

  2. The Swedish community near Dunkirk could refer to Pomfret township or to Portland/Brocton. This group of 20 Swedes who were planning to move West may not be included in my list because they may have migrated before the 1855 New York State Census and might not be documented in the area.

    The identity of the author has not been determined. No passenger on the manifest of the SELMA had initials S.G. or a name whose last letters were ___s ___g.

  3. Rev. Eric Norelius had harsh words for B.G.P. Bergenlund and Jacob Bredberg, so if he disliked someone he did not shy from having his opinion published. His remarks about Germund and Catherine Johnson were respectful, especially given their differing religious views: 

    Germund Johnson flyttade med familj till Vasa, Minnesota, och var i flera år farmare derstädes. Sedan flyttade han till Red Wing och hade sitt egentliga hem der de senare åren, men vistades mycket af tiden hos sina barn, dels i Alexandria, Douglas co., och dels i Stevens co. samt dog i augusti 1888 i Hancock samma co. Hans hustru, "Kare", dog ett par år förut; båda äro begrafna i Vasa. De voro till bekännelsen metodister, ganska frispråkiga och skrädde icke orden. 

    Translation:  Germund Johnson moved with his family to Vasa, Minnesota, and was for many years a farmer there. Later, they moved to Red Wing, but spent a lot of time with their children, in Alexandria, Douglas County and partly in Stevens County,  and died in August 1888 in Hancock County. . His wife "Kare" died a few years before; both are buried in Vasa. They were professed Methodists, quite outspoken, and did not mince words.
    Source:  Eric Norelius, De svenska luterska församlingarnas och Svenskarnas historia i Amerika. Rock Island, Ill., Lutheran Augustana Book Concern, 1890, p 32-33.

    In a nostalgic description of Germund Johnson he seems to indicate that Germund Johnson had wanted to become a minister when he was in Sweden and later once he was in America.  However, the subsequent reference to the contemporary conditions in Chandlers Valley might be construed as a reference to Frederick J. Johnson instead.

    Gamle Germunds och hans hustrus graf ligger helt nära intill där jag nu sitter och skrifver, endast en 40 acres-lott skiljer huset från graf platsen. Underliga äro de många omflyttningar och sammanlänkningar, vår nybyggare-historia har att uppvisa! Pastorn för Hessel Valley-församlingen hade pröfvat på att vara präst både i Sverige och i Amerika, och han sade mig en gång tillfälligt-vis: "Det ser ut, som om våra landtförsamlingar komma så småningom att gå ut", och så nämnde han, att i hans församling fanns nästan ingen ungdom. De allra flesta medlem marna voro öfver 65 år gamla. Hvart tar ungdomen vägen? Jo, den går till städerna. Detta är ett bekymmersamt ämne icke blott i Chandlers Valley och i New York-konferensen, utan man känner det mer eller mindre i alla våra konferenser. 

    Rougly translated:  Old Germund and his wife's graves are close to where I now sit and write, only a 40 acre lot separates this house from their grave site. Strange are the many relocations and interconnections that our pioneer history has to show! The pastor of the Hessel Valley congregation had tried to be a priest both in Sweden and in America, and he once told me more recently, "It looks as if our country churches will eventually go out," and so he mentioned that in his congregation there were almost no young people. The vast majority of members were over 65 years old. Where do the youth go? Yes, they go to the cities. This is a worrying subject not only in Chandler's Valley and in the New York Conference, but it feels more or less in all our conferences.
    Source:  Eric Norelius, De svenska luterska församlingarnas och Svenskarnas historia i Amerika. Vol. 2. Rock Island, Ill., Lutheran Augustana Book Concern, 1916, p 403.

  4. Daniel Larsson Justus was born 2 apr 1816 in Roslags-Bro (Bro) Parish, Stockholms län, the son of Kronobefallningsman (Administrator, sheriff/tax assesor/collector) L. C. Justus and Johanna Magdalena Tillander.  This Latin surname was written with an initial "j" or "i" as both Justus and Iustus. He married Anna Olofsdotter in Skog Parish, Gävlebergs län on 6 Jan 1837.  They and their three young children received permission to emigrate 16 Jan 1830 from Norrbo in Skog parish. 

    The Justus family was not identified by Nils William Olsson in his ground-breaking study of the earliest Swedish passengers to America (which included the 1850 voyages). My best guess, based on the similarities to the John (Peterson) Frank family, is that they traveled from Gävle to Göteborg and also arrived aboard the MINONA on 2 July 1850 in Boston. However, this would mean that the Justus family was omitted altogether from that manifest.

    The Justus family was enumerated 2 Sep 1850 as Household No. 273 in Busti, Chautauqua County in the United States Census.  The family was not enumerated in the 1855 New York State Census but that likely indicates that they were working/living on a farm across the border in Warren County.

    The family left our area in the spring of 1856 and arrived in Carver County that summer.

    There is no indication that the Justus family was connected to the Swedish community at Bishop Hill in Andover County, Illinois. This is relevant because of the connection between Gävle (Gefle) as the principal port of exit for the Janssonite sect.

    Living next door to the Justus family in 1850 was John (Peterson) Frank and his family, he was listed as James Peterson. This family from Målilla and Gårdveda parish arrived aboard the MINONA on 2 July 1850 in Boston, was not enumerated in the 1855 NYS Census, and migrated to Watertown in 1857.